Review Articles

Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Diet: the Present and the Future

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.08.001
Irene Mateos Rodriguez

The frequent presence of gastrointestinal problems in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has led to attempts to understand how gastrointestinal disturbances relate to behaviour, and how modifying diets may help to modify behaviour. This review paper aims to summarise the rationale for managing symptoms of ASD through diet, the current status of research on diet and ASD, and the future of employing this approach to manage ASD.

Real-time functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback in the prevention of Food Craving and Binge Eating Episodes

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.06.001
Duarte Armindo, R

Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which the subject is given information about specific brain activity with the objective of obtaining self-regulation of brain processes in response to certain external stimuli.

Potential applications of three-dimensional bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.03.002
Dominic Kwan

It can be argued that the concept of bioengineering began when Alexis Carrel and Charles Lindbergh published “The Culture of Organs” in 1938, which described the equipment and methods that made the in vitro maintenance of organs possible. The final chapter of the book mentions an ‘ultimate goal’ of increasing the speed of wound healing. From its conception in the 1980s to the present day, scientists and medical researchers alike have been investigating the exciting prospects that three-dimensional printing offers to the field of medicine. Over the course of three decades, advances in this technology have led to several famous milestones, in the process spawning the term ‘bioprinting’. In contemporary medicine, bioprinting is beginning to play a role in regenerative medicine and clinical research by providing scientists with the ability to build tissue-engineered scaffolds, prosthetic limbs, and even functioning kidneys. One of the earliest cases of bioprinting made international headlines in 1999 when the world’s first 3D printed collagen scaffold was used for bladder augmentation in dogs. Then, in 2009, researchers at Organovo Inc., a 3D bioprinting company in the United States, created the world’s first bioprinted blood vessels for hepatic tissue by printing tri-layered analogues formed of human fibroblasts (to represent the adventitia), smooth muscle cells (to represent the media), and vascular endothelial cells (to represent the intima).

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