Perspectives

Historical Figures in Neuroscience: Donald Hebb

Image Credit: Raymond M. Klein

doi:10.7244/cmj.2016.02.002
J Kang

Donald Olding Hebb is truly a historical figure in the field of neuroscience, neurology and psychology. Hebb’s work, in particular his monograph The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory, provided a biological explanation for numerous psychological phenomena and revolutionized the aforementioned fields, a feat emphasized by his consequent nomination for the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. However, what distinguishes Hebb from other exceptional scientists is that his influence is not solely limited to his research. His work as an educator inspired many prominent psychologists, including Brenda Milner, Ronald Melzack and Michael Posner, and stimulated changes in educational approaches, most notably in the childhood education of the underprivileged.

Antimicrobial resistance: A major threat to public health

Credit: Wellcome Images

doi:10.7244/cmj.2016.01.001
WL Hamilton and R Wenlock

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is an increasing problem in the treatment of many pathogenic microorganisms, and can be intrinsic to the pathogen or acquired. Here, we provide an overview of the causes and consequences of AMR using illustrations from bacterial species that have a major impact on UK healthcare, such as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Bacteria can quickly evolve AMR due to short generation times allowing rapid evolutionary change, and horizontal transfer of genetic material between strains. The resulting arms race between bacterial evolution and human pharmaceuticals is one that modern medicine is currently losing, with potentially disastrous consequences for patient outcomes, public health, and healthcare macroeconomics.

From Brain To Behaviour – What will we know in 10 years’ time?

doi:10.7244/cmj.2015.12.001
Matt Butler

The arbitrary distinction between the disciplines of psychiatry and neurology has become increasingly unhelpful in the successful treatment of patients with nervous system disorders. Since the divergence of the disciplines in the 19th and 20th centuries, neurology has been concerned with conditions arising from discreet lesions in the nervous system; conversely psychiatry with conditions involving higher cortical dysfunction.

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