Duarte Armindo, R
Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which the subject is given information about specific brain activity with the objective of obtaining self-regulation of brain processes in response to certain external stimuli.
It can be argued that the concept of bioengineering began when Alexis Carrel and Charles Lindbergh published “The Culture of Organs” in 1938, which described the equipment and methods that made the in vitro maintenance of organs possible. The final chapter of the book mentions an ‘ultimate goal’ of increasing the speed of wound healing. From its conception in the 1980s to the present day, scientists and medical researchers alike have been investigating the exciting prospects that three-dimensional printing offers to the field of medicine. Over the course of three decades, advances in this technology have led to several famous milestones, in the process spawning the term ‘bioprinting’. In contemporary medicine, bioprinting is beginning to play a role in regenerative medicine and clinical research by providing scientists with the ability to build tissue-engineered scaffolds, prosthetic limbs, and even functioning kidneys. One of the earliest cases of bioprinting made international headlines in 1999 when the world’s first 3D printed collagen scaffold was used for bladder augmentation in dogs. Then, in 2009, researchers at Organovo Inc., a 3D bioprinting company in the United States, created the world’s first bioprinted blood vessels for hepatic tissue by printing tri-layered analogues formed of human fibroblasts (to represent the adventitia), smooth muscle cells (to represent the media), and vascular endothelial cells (to represent the intima).
Ruth L Gilliver
Aims: To review the literature from 2006 - August 2016 regarding the diagnostic imaging of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), considering potential future radiological options as well as the current 2009 International Guidelines.
A 32 year old gentleman, presenting initially with a ‘dragging’ foot, rapidly progressed to become paraplegic within a year. Here, a case summary is presented initially, followed by the differential diagnosis for the clinical presentation. Investigations primarily showed combined central and peripheral demyelination which could have been secondary to the anti-CRMP5 antibodies found in his serum. Such antibodies are highly associated with malignancy and, as a consequence, our patient was extensively investigated for an occult neoplasm (which was not found). While the central and peripheral demyelination may have been secondary to an antibody-mediated paraneoplastic syndrome, other differentials such as autoimmune combined demyelination must also be considered.
Although communicable disease (CD) and non-communicable disease (NCD) are often thought of as separate, competing entities particularly when it comes to funding pipelines and interventions, the two classes of disease are in fact intimately related. Medical anthropologists and sociologists have long recognized that social determinants such as poverty serve as a common breeding ground for CDs and NCDs, but the relationship between the two kinds of diseases can be even more direct. This article explores the intimate symbiosis between CDs and NCDs through a range of illustrative examples. In some CD-NCD pairs, the CD causes or is etiologically associated with an NCD, illustrating that NCD interventions are sometimes more effective when coupled with CD interventions, such as vaccination programs. In others, the relationship is better characterized as bidirectional, each worsening the outcomes of the other. From a broader perspective, these relationships also connect with each other in a larger web of various CD-NCD interactions. Because of these reinforcing relationships, screening for and treating CDs and related NCDs together rather than separately can more effectively reduce the suffering they cause. Hence, integrating interventions against CDs and NCDs can produce better clinical results than addressing them separately, and given the increasing overlap between the burdens of NCDs and CDs across the world, integration is now as crucial as ever.
Dengue is an important mosquito-borne viral disease and constitutes a major public health concern throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Its global incidence has increased 30-fold in the past half century and the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that there are up to 100 million new infections annually, with 40% of the world’s population at risk.
T Stewart and B Mak
In an age of unprecedented scientific advancement, it is unacceptable that vast segments of the world’s population lack access to essential medicines. Sadly, this is the current state of affairs, with only two thirds of the world’s population having regular access to essential medicines (1).
Donald Olding Hebb is truly a historical figure in the field of neuroscience, neurology and psychology. Hebb’s work, in particular his monograph The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory, provided a biological explanation for numerous psychological phenomena and revolutionized the aforementioned fields, a feat emphasized by his consequent nomination for the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. However, what distinguishes Hebb from other exceptional scientists is that his influence is not solely limited to his research. His work as an educator inspired many prominent psychologists, including Brenda Milner, Ronald Melzack and Michael Posner, and stimulated changes in educational approaches, most notably in the childhood education of the underprivileged.